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We provide consulting in the following areas.

  • Feasibility and Screening Studies

  • Process Technical & Economic Evaluations

  • Licensed Technology Selection Support

  • Preliminary Front End Engineering Design (FEED)

  • Detailed Process Designs / Basic Engineering Design

  • Pilot Plant Design, Evaluation, and Scaleup

  • Plant Expansions

  • Greenfield Plant Designs

  • Process Modeling and Simulation

  • Mass & Energy Balance, PFDs, and P&IDs

  • Process Equipment Specifications

  • Process Control Scheme Design and Optimization

  • Hydraulics Analysis

  • Preliminary Cost Estimation

  • Technical Bid Preparation and Review

  • Detail Engineering Phase Support

  • Engineering Firm Staff Augmentation

  • Independent 3rd Party Process Evaluations

  • Optimization & Debottlenecking Studies

  • Energy Conservation Studies

  • Distillation Systems Design

  • Packed Tower Design

  • Heat Transfer / Heat Exchanger Design

  • Existing Equipment Utilization Studies

  • Emission Controls Process Design

  • Environmental Compliance Technical Support

  • Product Quality Improvement Support

  • Relief/Flare Systems/Vent Studies

  • Simulation Design Tools Development

  • Process Safety Management Services

  • PHA Facilitation/HAZOPs

  • Risk Management Program Development

  • Plant Operations Support

  • Process Controls Services

  • Process Troubleshooting

  • Technical Training

  • Process Safety

  • Project Development

  • Process Engineering


Process Safety


  • Relief Devices and Flare system calculations & documentation

  • Process Safety Management (PSM)

  • Process Safety Audits

  • HAZOP Reviews

  • SIL Classification

  • Risk Assessment

  • LOPA


Project Development


  • Techno-Economic Project Feasibility Studies

  • Detailed Project Report / Sensitivity Analysis

  • Licensor Selection / Technology Assessment and Evaluations

  • Basic Engineering

  • FEED and Detail Design

  • Operator Training Simulator Development

  • 3rd Party Offer technical evaluations




As-Built Engineering Service


An as-built drawing annotates any field changes that differ from the original design. Our team of multi-discipline professionals together with equipment and resources perform the entire scope of As-built Engineering Service which includes,



  • Site Survey and Red-Lining

  • As-Built Update

  • Intelligent 2D Drawing

  • Intelligent 3D Modelling.



Feasibility Studies and Conceptual/Preliminary Process Design (FEL-0 / FEL-1 / pre-FEED) - Project Examples


When clients are contemplating a new pilot facility, new plant, or major process expansion, they typically have more questions than answers. Is it technically feasible? What is the best process configuration? Should it be batch or continuous? How much would it cost?  P&C Associates is able to assist by providing experienced and knowledgeable chemical engineers that can identify, and systematically narrow down, the possible technical options for a given process goal. Once the viable technical options are identified, an economic evaluation is performed. Based on technical merits, system reliability, economics (capital and operating), and other factors, it usually becomes clear as to how the future process design should progress. At this point a conceptual design can be developed by P&C Associates that includes preliminary process flow diagrams, mass & energy balances, a list of major equipment, and a rough order of magnitude cost estimate.   P&C Associates can also assist at this point in identifying potential risks associated with the design (weak areas in the design basis, insufficient lab data etc.) so that a plan can be developed to address these issues prior to or during the next phase of the project. 



It is widely recognized that this key front end work will have a major impact on the overall project and ultimate operation of the process. If this work is not done properly then the project is in trouble no matter how good the subsequent detail engineering, construction, and project management work are executed.



FEL 0 - Identification Phase (Conceptual Process Design or Screening Study)

Industrial project opportunities can target revenue growth; expense reductions; strategic growth; or improved reliability and/or efficiency. Clients typically identify opportunities by evaluating the value and identifying key risks and uncertainties. It is important to evaluate opportunities on a consistent basis for comparison purposes. The basis for the first decision gate is a high level screening study or conceptual process design study.  This level of work involves identifying promising chemical conversion pathways or major licensed technologies, narrowing the project down to one or more options, identifying major equipment, developing block flow diagrams, and generating an Order of Magnitude capital cost estimate range ($1MM, $10MM, $100MM, etc.).



FEL 1 - Appraisal and Selection Phases (Alternatives Evaluation and Preliminary Process Design)


Appraisal (Alternatives Evaluation)

During the appraisal phase of the project a series of process alternatives is developed and further assessment of the process value, risk, and uncertainty is conducted. Some examples may include alternatives such as batch versus continuous processing, use of different types of separation techniques (extraction versus distillation, pressure filtration versus a centrifuge), etc. The most promising development concepts progress forward to the Selection phase.

Selection (Preliminary Process Design)


The objective of the Selection phase of the project is to identify a single process concept for progression to the Detailed Process Design phase of the project. Preparation of work deliverables requires that a single process concept be selected and further developed during this phase. Once a concept has been selected, the team will complete the level of detail necessary to develop a cost estimate and preliminary project schedule with a typical accuracy of –30% to +50%. Deliverables at this stage often include the following:

  • Preliminary Process Design Basis

  • Process Alternatives Evaluations Summary

  • Preliminary Process Simulation and Heat and Material Balance Data

  • Preliminary Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)

  • Preliminary Equipment List

  • Preliminary Major Equipment Conditions of Service List

  • Preliminary Capital and Operating Cost Estimate (+50% /-30%)

  • Preliminary Summary of Raw Materials and Utility Requirements

  • Process Risk Summary.

A more detailed breakdown of our experience can be found at Conceptual Process Design Services ( Front End Loading FEL-0, FEL-1)


Detailed Process Designs

Detailed Process Design Schedule A, FEL-2 / FEL-3 / FEED, or Basic Engineering Packages - Project Examples


Once the process configuration has been clearly defined a detailed process design package can be prepared.  This is very critical to the long term success of the project. 


FEL-2 Process Design Package  


The Process Design Package or Front End Engineering Design Study (FEED) will establish the specific set of process operating conditions and equipment necessary to achieve the level of reliability, efficiency, and safety required. This design phase sets the direction for the rest of the project.   At the completion of this phase, a cost estimate of +40%/-20% can typically be developed for the project. 

PROCESS puts great emphasis on the development of the Design Basis at the initiation of


FEL-2. When the design basis is complete, we typically have the following information defined:

  • Raw material specifications

  • Plant capacity requirements

  • Product specifications

  • Critical plant operating parameters

  • Available utilities specifications

  • Individual unit operations performance requirements

  • Process regulatory requirements

  • All other operating goals and constraints desired by the plant owners/operators/engineers.


Once the design basis is in place, and agreed upon with the client, P&C Associates’s team of chemical process engineers goes to work to create, analyze, and optimize the many aspects of the plant design. The end result is process documentation that clearly defines the process.   


Typical Process Engineering Deliverables for an FEL-2 package can include the following or a smaller subset of these items:

  • Process design basis

  • Material & Energy Balance (M&EB)

  • Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)

  • Process descriptions

  • Utility balances and Utility Flow Diagrams (UFDs)

  • Preliminary Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)

  • Process control description

  • Preliminary line/pipe list

  • Preliminary instrument list

  • Process equipment list

  • Preliminary Tie-in list

  • Equipment process datasheets

  • Instrument process datasheets

  • Hydraulic design reports.


FEL-3 Detailed Process Design Package

The detailed process design package (PDP), which is sometimes referred to as a Schedule A or Basic Engineering Design (BED) package, refers to a completed process design package that includes all the necessary information required by an Engineering/Construction firm or Detail Engineering firm to perform the final engineering of the plant (details such a structural steel supports, buildings, wiring, piping details, insulation, equipment vendor/model selection, etc.). PROCESS provides this package and helps to answer any questions the client or engineering firm might have to ensure a smooth transition into the detail engineering phase. We provide process design  packages for both Inside Battery Limits (ISBL) and Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) design requirements.


In addition to updating the items mentioned above in FEL-2, the following items are typically added during the FEL-3 phase.


  • Preliminary general arrangement drawings

  • Preliminary building requirements

  • General description of the project site

  • Budget pricing from vendors on major pieces of equipment

  • Process design philosophies

  • Relief system design basis

  • Relief scenario datasheets and relief valve process datasheets

  • Material Selection Diagrams (MSDs) and piping specifications

  • Tie-in list

  • Identification of power source and location

  • Preliminary single line diagrams

  • Process specialty items list

  • Raw material and product storage and handling requirements

  • Process effluent and emissions summary

  • Process risk analysis (PHA, HAZOP, etc.)

  • Preliminary operating procedures

  • Preliminary product and in-process QC sampling/testing plan

  • Preliminary project schedule.

At the completion of this phase of the project, and cost estimate of +25%/-15% can typically be generated for the project.


Process Integrity Oversight During Detail Engineering & Construction Phase Support

More and more, P&C Associates is requested to remain on during the detail engineering and construction phases of projects for which we have performed the process design. In this oversight role, any process change requests are routed through our engineers for approval or comment. This helps ensure that the client understands what the impact may be on the process as changes and alternatives are suggested. Many times there is great pressure to hold down costs as the civil, mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation details of the plant are developed. The temptation to remove seemingly inconsequential process components can lead to off-spec product, inadequate throughput, high operating costs, etc. We are able to help prevent such problems simply by serving as the process integrity watchdog.


In addition, many times P&C Associates is asked to provide vendor technical and cost proposal evaluations to assist the client in making the best technology selection possible. Since we are not aligned with any equipment companies, we provide these services in a completely objective manner and make what we feel is the best recommendation based solely upon the technical and economic aspects of the options.


Process Technical and Economic Evaluations


We are often called upon by clients to evaluate process options aimed at achieving one or more specific goals. These goals run the gamut from improved throughput, quality, or consistency, to emissions reduction, energy recovery, or waste minimization. In such cases we begin by determining the current state of the process. This is done through a series of interviews and discussions with the client's technical, engineering, and plant operating personnel. Additionally plant process data is collected in various forms, some of which include P&IDs, batch sheets, DCS data logs, heat and material balance information (if it exists), operation logs, etc. Our engineers then begin to analyze the situation via experience, calculations, simulation techniques, and consultation with other engineers at P&C Associates as needed. The outcome is a technical engineering critique of the current process with a focus on the areas which need the most improvement. The economic cost implications of the current process are modeled to establish the baseline from which all potential improvements will be evaluated. Many times we are asked to further identify viable technical options and provide an economic comparison between them. Based on technical process option merits, economic cost implications (capital/operating, fixed/variable), and our experienced based evaluation of the relative suitability of each process option, a final solution is recommended.


Although more detailed engineering effort is required to make the best option a tangible operational solution, our clients can do so with confidence knowing they have made an intelligent, thorough, systematic, and informed decision.

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